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Tuesday, 17 January 2017

Antagonists, Synergists, and Succession



                Interactions (reciprocal effects) between wood fungi have been early investi-gated e.g., by Oppermann (1951) and Leslie et al. (1976), and were described in detail by Rayner and Boddy (1988). Antagonism (competitive reciprocal effect), the mutual inhibition and in a broader sense the inhibition of one organism by others, is based on the pro-duction of toxic metabolites, on mycoparasitism, and on nutrient competition. 

Antagonisms are investigated as alternative to the chemical protection against tree fungi ("biological forest protection") and against fungi on wood in service ("biological wood protection") (Walchli 1982; Bruce 1992; Holdenrieder and Greig 1998; Phillips-Laing et al. 2003). As early as 1934, Weindling showed the inhibiting effect of Trichoderma species on several fungi. Bjerkandera adusta and Ganoderma species were antagonistic against the causing agent of Plane canker stain disease (Grosclaude et al. 1990). Also, v. Aufseg (1976) examined mycelial interactions between Heterobasidion annosum and Stereum sanguinolentum and antagonistic fungi like Phlebiopsis gigantea and Trichoderma viride (also Holdenrieder 1984). Root rot by Heterobasidion annosum  is the classical target for biological forest protection and the only example of a successful biological control of a fungal forest disease. 

Based on the work of Rishbeth, stump treat-ment with Phlebiopsis gigantea was developed and successfully used in several countries. Originally in England, the spread of root rot in pine sites was di-minished by the immediate coating of the fresh stump surface with an aqueous spore (asexual arthrospores) suspension of P. gigantea (Meredith 1959; Rish-beth 1963). The antagonist colonizes the stump, that is H. annosum cannot infect it by air-borne spores and thus an infection of neighboring trees via root grafts is prevented. The treatment of spruces yielded differently satisfac-tory results (Korhonen et al. 1994; Holdenrieder et al. 1997). Holdenrieder and Greig (1998) listed also several bacteria, which were antagonistic against H. an-nosum. Promising systems for the biological protection of growing trees have been studied against Armillaria luteobubalina, Chondrostereum purpureum, Phellinus tremulae, P. weirii, and Ophiostoma ulmi (Bruce 1998; also Palli and Retnakaran 1998). There were many attempts for biological wood protection (Bruce 1998). 


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