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Ecological dictionary 1 ,abiotic to anaerobic




                               Ecological dictionary 1 



A abiotic : nonliving components of an ecosystem, such as water, air, light, and nutrients

abyssal: relating to bottom waters of oceans

acid rain: anthropogenic emissions of hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen oxides from fossil fuel combustion that interact with water vapor to produce dilute sulfuric and nitric acids. causing widespread acidification of cloud and rainwater

 aerobic : refers to life in the presence of free oxygen, either as a gas in the atmosphere or dis-solved in water

aestivation : dormancy in animals during periods of drought

age distribution:  ratio of each age group (prereproductive, reproductive, and postreproduc-nye) in a population

aggregate dispersion : distribution of individuals in a clumped or aggregate pattern of disper-sion (such as herds, coveys, or schools)

A horizon : surface stratum of soil, characterized by maximum accumulation of organic mat-ter and biological activity

Alice principle of aggregation : a special type of density dependence, first identified by W C. Alice in 1931, in which a degree of aggregation results in optimum population growth and survival


allele frequency : commonness of an allele in a population

allelopathy : direct inhibition of one plant species by another using noxious or toxic compounds

allochthonous :  (from Greek chthonos, "of Earth," and altos, -other-) refers to organic materials not generated within the community or ecosystem

allogenic succession : successional changes that are largely the result of external forces or per-turbations, such as fire or flooding

allopatric speciation:  speciation (from a common ancestor into distinct species) resulting from the geographical separation of populations

alpine tundra : tundra-like conditions found above tree lines on high mountains altruism sacrifice of fitness by one individual for the benefit of another

altruistic behavior : social behavior that apparently enhances the fitness of other individuals in the population at the expense of the individual performing the behavior

amensalism : a relationship between two species in which one population is inhibited and the other not alleded

anaerobic : refers to life or processes that occur in the absence of free oxygen
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