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Thursday, 19 January 2017

Molding


The term mold originates from daily life and is not a taxonomic. name of a single systematic group (Reiss 1997; Killerand Morelet 1000). The Deuteromycetes (fungi imperfecti) constitute an artificial group and comprise a great variety of 20,000 -30,000 species of 1,700 genera of I-1 phomycetes and 700 genera of Coelomycetes. 





The different molds have a broad spectrum of physiological response with regard to temperature, water activity, pH value etc. and thus can colonize and damage very diverse materials (molding).

 Molds are significant in view of damages to foodstuffs, deterioration of natural materials (leather, books, textiles, wallpapers), Nv t h regard to human and animal health, and for biochemists and the manufacturers of antibiotics [77) of about 3,200 admitted antibiotics Originate from fungi: Muller and Loeffler (1991)], organic acids e.g., citronic acid, malic acid: Rehm (1980)1, enzymes (e.g., amylase, protease, lipase, cellulase, pectinase), cheese (Penicillium camemberti, P salami sausages (P. nalgiovense), and "country cured ham" (Aspergillus spp., spp.) (Schwantes 1996; Reig 1997). 

Botrytis cinerea causes the "noble rot" of sweet wines. Fusarium oxysporum ssp. cannabis is used as an herbicide for suppressing marijuana plants (Kiffer and Morelet 2000). Even synthetic floor coverings, airplane fuels, oils, glues, paints, optical glasses, and textiles can be overgrown with and damaged by molds. With regard to lignocelluloses, seeds, seedlings, young tree roots (Schonhar 1989), standing trees (Schmidt 1985), stored and blocked wood (Wolf and Liese 1977; Bues 1993), piled wood chips (Feicht et al. 2002) of the pulp industry (Hajny 1966), stored annual plants, like sugarcane bagasse (Schmidt and Walter 1978), and books (Kerner-Gang and Nirenberg 1980) can be colonized by molds. Paecilomyces variotii (mold and soft-rot activity) is involved in the yellow discoloration of oak wood during storage and drying (Bauch et al. 1991). 

There are German and European standards and test methods to measure growth of molds on and resistance of substrates like electrotechnical products, plastics, textiles, optic apparatus, and timber (Kruse et al. 2004). Frequently, molds are recognizable by their fast growth on the surface of substrates, on which conidia develop rapidly . 

Due to the species-specific color of the conidia, wood colonized by several mold species can make a multicolored impression, or it outweighs e.g., black due to Aspergillus nicer or green after Penicillium spp. or Trichoderma spp. colonization. Trichoderma species were the most frequent fungi on spruce roots from for-est •dieback sites (SchOnhar 1992). 

Stored beech stems are frequently colonized by Bispora monilioides, which causes black, radially arranged, elliptical strips on the fresh trunk cross surface. Molds develop on fresh cuts after tree felling, particuldarrliyedoannthe(iairnt7giisltt sapwood, on inappropriately stored lumber, insufficiently 

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