Determination keys and descriptions for Deuteromycetes are based on mor-phology, color, and development (conidiogenesis) of conidia and conidio-genous cells (Carmichael et al. 1980; Domsch et al. 1980; v. Arx 1981; Wang 1990; Hoog and Guarro 1995; Schwantes 1996; Kiffer and Morelet 2000; Samson et al. 2004). The fruit bodies of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes serve to identify species on the basis of macro- and microscopic characteristics using keys or illustrated books: Kreisel 1961; Domariski 1972; Domariski et al. 1973; Breitenbach and Kranzlin 1981, 1986, 1991, 1995; Moser 1983; Jiilich 1984; Hanlin 1990; Jahn 1990; Wang and Zabel 1990; Ryvarden and Gilbertson 1993, 1994; Huckfeldt and Schmidt /005; yeasts: Barnett et al. 1990).
There are identification kits for yeasts that employ assimilation tests of carbohydrates with a specifically adapted database, and also growth tests on carbon sources that are bound to a tetrazolium dye (Mikluscak and Dawson-Andoh 2005). An illustrated key for wood-decay fungi is in the Internet (Huckfeldt 2002). For wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes, of which only mycelium is present, keys are based on microscopic characteristics of the hyphae and on growth pa-rameters (Davidson et al. 1942; Nobles 1965; Stalpers 1978; Rayner and Boddy 1988; Lombard and Chamuris 1990). Among the physiological characteristics, the Bavendamm test for the differentiation of brown- and white-rot fungi is based on the presence/absence of the phenol oxidase laccase (Bavendamm 1928; Davidson et al. 1938; Kaarik 1965; Niku Paavola et al. 1990; Tamai and Miura 1991; Chap. 4.5). Specific reactions to temperature (Chap. 3.4) provide further information. However, keys for mycelia are unable to differentiate closely related fungi such as the various Antrodia and Coniophora species. The strand diagnosis of Falck (1912; Table 2.4, Figs. 8.19-8.21) differentiates few indoor decay fungi like Serpula lacrymans, Coniophora puteana and Antrodia vaillantii.
As house-rot fungi are the economically most important wood fungi by destroying wood during its final use within buildings and as not all indoor fungi fruit, a key including about 20 strand-forming indoor wood decay fungi (Huckfeldt and Schmidt 2004, 2005, 2006) is given in Appendix 1. In addition, there are monographs and descriptions of important tree pathogens (e.g., Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma species: Upadhyay 1981; Wing-field et al. 1999; Armillaria species: Shaw and Kile 1991; Heterobasidion annosum: Woodward et a1.1998) and of wood-degrading Basidiomycetes (Cockcroft 1981; Ginns 1982) with data to taxonomy, morphology, ecology, growth behav-ior, and wood degradation in the laboratory and outside.
A further possibility for identification is by national institutions against fee (Table 2.7). A list of collections and institutions with strain collections, compiled by German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, is in the Internet (www.dsmz.de/species/abbrev.htm). Sixty-one culture collections in 22 Eu-ropean countries are united in the European Culture Collections' Organisa-tion (ECCO; eccosite.org). The World Federation of Culture Collections is a worldwide database on culture re-sources comprising 499 culture collections from 65 countries.
Table 2.7. Examples of institutions for identification, deposition, and purchasing of mi-croorganisms
German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ), Braunschweig Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS), Baarn, Netherlands International Mycological Institute (IMI), Kew, UK Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (BCCM), Gent American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Rockville